individual Behavior, Team work & group dynamics

Individual Behavior

indi

http://www.harleystreetpsychology.com/cognitive-behaviour-therapy-london/

Individual Behavior is the way how an individual act or react towards external things and how that person give response to others.

Organisations are made by individuals and every individual has different objectives. Individual behavior can be affected by intrinsic factors and exterior environmental factors as well. (Brooks – 2003, p.14)

Individual behavior can also be depend on their job status for instance Sports Direct supervisor behavior can be different from his employees who are working under him because of their job status and power they are holding at work.

Individual behavior depends on 5 factors and those are given below.

  1. Hereditary and Diversity factors: 

Hereditary factors are those which are transferring from parents to children. These factors are inherited it can be mental and can be physical as well. Whereas Diversity factors means individuals are difference and that difference is recognisable for everyone for example their age, gender, their ability, culture and also their sexual orientation.

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http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2008/06/25104032/4

  1. Ability & Skills:

Some people born with ability and skills whereas some learn this theory from someone else or from different sources that how to tackle their tasks efficiently and how to respond people.

3

http://blog.jobsgopublic.com/grow-find-perfect-career-path-part-2/

  1. Perception:

              Perception can be defined as views about something. Every person has different perception. At workplace perception can affect staff motivation as well for example if a worker has a perception that there would not be any reward after work than that person might not give his best in that task so perception has great influence on human behavior.

1

https://laetitiastuder.wordpress.com/2015/01/18/individual-and-group-behaviour-new-technology/

  1. Attitude:

             It can be defined as how a person deals with others. Attitude can affect individual behavior positively or can be in a negative way as well. Organisation can affect its staff attitude and also their behavior by generating that sort of environment.

2

http://www.edbatista.com/2010/04/

  1. Personality:

Personality is a way person represent himself. It affects person performance and behavior as well. Even in workplace every person personality not suited to their job place so it is even important to give job to employees according to their personality because it does has impact on company productivity as well.

3

http://smallbusiness.chron.com/personality-affects-work-behavior-45940.html

Manager can use this knowledge in different ways such as:

  • Manager should design some incentive or bonus for all employees which will make their perception positive towards their task so everyone will give their best performance to get bonus.
  • Manager can use individual knowledge in different fields and also give them appropriate feedback.
  • Arrange one to one meeting with all employees and discuss their problem which will help their personality grooming.
  • Arrange board meetings and also call all employees and allocate their jobs and responsibility which would helpful towards their clear goal and visions.

Team roles & group dynamics

Main factor about team performance is how effectively and efficiently team member works as a group.

Belbin has introduced an effective model of team roles.

According to Dr. R. M. Belbin “Team role is a tendency to behave, contribute and interrelate with others in a particular way”.

Belbin 9 team roles are categorised as:

People

  • Resource investigators ( discover opportunities and improve contacts which helps business, communicative)
  • Co-ordinators ( efficient team leader, explain goals,
  • team workers (cooperative, diplomatic, calm)

Action

  • shapers (challenging, courage to remove difficulties and problems)
  • implementers (controlled, reliable, turn ideas and plan into action)
  • finisher ( find errors and omissions)

Thinking

  • plant (creative, eligible to solve challenging issues)
  • specialist ( self-started, deliver information and skills in rare supply)
  • monitor-evaluator ( make strategy, judge truthfully, find options)

4

http://www.leadershipsolutions.co.nz/belbin_benefits.cfm

 

Factors that could improve group performance and group dynamics

 

One of the major factor is that enhance group performance is “how people form in group”.

Bruce Tuckman introduced a model for effective team development. According to him there are 5 stages to make good and effective group.

  • Forming (highly dependent on leader for direction)
  • Storming (clarity of purpose increase but highly uncertainty within group)
  • Norming (unity between team members become strong, clear task)
  • Performing (focus on achieving goal, disagreement occur but resolve between team, works get done)
  • Adjourning (after completion of task group breaks/split)

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http://yousearch.co/images/Tuckman

There are also some other factors as well which can increase group dynamic and performance such as.

  • Define roles and responsibilities effectively.
  • Break down barriers between employees so all employees get to know each other properly.
  • Communication plays an important role in group dynamics so make sure that all members communicate clearly with everyone.
  • Gives proper attention and give warning for poor group dynamic.

If Gold Gym follow the Belbin model that would be helpful for them and for their specific group tasks they should follow Tuckman model it would help them to motivate there employees and bring clear vision of company between all staff.

 

 

 

 

 

Role and impact of technology on teamwork

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http://srilankaictelectronics.com/?reqp=1&reqr=nzcdYaEvLaE5pv5jLv5brN

Technology plays an important role in all aspects of business. Technology helps to make work more efficient and build better communication between people. It also helps to remove distance so people can get in touch with each other every time.

There are various benefits of technology in teamwork such as.

Technology Benefits:

              The core benefit of technology is it allows separate groups of people with different schedule timing to get their work done more efficiently and with less cost through E-mails, video conferencing, instant messages, e-calendars and other technology helps to remove travel time.

Project management software:

             While using project management software you can increase your team ability by monitor and also track a project and progression pf that project. This software also allows seeing estimating budgeting of your project.

Mobile phones:

Nowadays mostly people use phone to access internet. It also allows communicating with your team members quickly and clearly. And you can also send them e-mail and make a follow-up call it allows team member to work together regardless of their location and time.

Webinars:

It is another method of holding group meetings which allows team members to listen presentation through using their internet browser also some webinars software allows to make audio communication as well.

7

http://www.digitalsherpa.com/blog/choosing-the-proper-webinar-presentation-software/

There are also many other technologies available which makes work between team member more efficient and team member can get in touch even while they are not in same  countries.

Bibliography

Ashe-Edmunds, S. (2014, july 4). work.chron.com. Retrieved june 1, 2015, from chron: http://work.chron.com/can-technology-enhance-teamwork-groups-workplace-1878.html

cipd. (2014, october 5). http://www.cipd.co.uk/. Retrieved june 2, 2015, from cipd: http://www.cipd.co.uk/hr-resources/factsheets/diversity-workplace-overview.aspx

Eyre, E. (2013, april 9). http://www.mindtools.com. Retrieved june 3 2015, from mindtools: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/improving-group-dynamics.htm

Fishaw, J. (2012, april 22). http://www.digitalsherpa.com/. Retrieved june 3, 2015, from digitalsherpa: http://www.digitalsherpa.com/blog/choosing-the-proper-webinar-presentation-software/

Franz, T. M. (2012). Group Dynamics and Team Interventions. John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

Franz, T. M. (2012). Group Dynamics and Team Interventions. John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

Steve Brachmann, D. M. (2013, december 22). smallbusiness.chron.com. Retrieved june 2, 2015, from smallbusiness: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/perception-motivation-organizational-behavior-13609.html

West, M. A. (2012). Effective Teamwork: Practical Lessons From Organizational Research. In M. A. West, Effective Teamwork: Practical Lessons From Organizational Research (p. 320). Wiley.

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Leadership styles & motivational theories

Leadership styles & Motivation

Any organisation structure depends on their style of leadership. Leadership is generally defined as making a clear vision and communicating that vision with others.

Impact of leadership style on Motivational Techniques:

Leadership styles or types can have proper impact on employees’ motivation. On the other hand it is even harder to decide which leadership style is good because there are various leadership styles to choose from.

For instance based upon blog 2 I’ve chooses transformational leadership style for Sports direct and that style is based on reward and punishment for example in this leadership style employer sets a task if employee fulfil that task then employee will get a reward and if employee failed then will get punish for that but on the same time employer also motivating them as well. This leadership style is good for motivating employee because for the sake of getting reward they will give their best. This leadership style has extrinsic motivational factor because in this style of leadership employer motive employees through reward.

Extrinsic Motivation:

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http://coaching-journey.com/carrot-and-stick-intrinsic-extrinsic-motivation/

It can be define as when someone motivates by external factors or motivation that comes from any individual it can be through reward or encouragement by someone.

 

 

 

 

Intrinsic Motivation:

in

http://creativiteach.me/2012/03/14/creativity-intrinsic-motivation-and-assessment-for-creativity/

Personal gratification derived through self-initiated accomplishment is known as intrinsic motivation.

Maslow Hierarchy of Needs

mas

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-23902918

It is theory in physiology which has been introduced by Abraham Maslow. He believes that people does not get motivates through rewards they get motivate after fulfilling 5 hierarchy of needs.

That hierarchy of needs model can be divided into basic needs.

  1. Physiological needs
  2. Safety
  3. Love
  4. Esteem needs
  5. Self-acquisition

Maslow believes that people can’t live without these needs.

Physiological needs are the mental requirement for human life if this requirement does not full then human body can’t work efficiently. He said that this need is the most important for every human.

Physiological needs include air, shelter, water and clothing.

Safety needs are also important for everyone because everyone wants to saves their selves from threats.

Safety needs includes personal security, financial security (because in the time of job crises it’s hard to find job so if people don’t have jobs they would not have money) and health as well,

Love:  After physiological and safety needs third stage of need is Love or belongings. This need is more needed for children. This need can affect emotions or feelings of someone. Love/emotions for friends and family or love for any personal thing is a part of needs of love.

Esteem Needs: after successfully completing 3 needs human mind goes to esteem needs self-respect is a part of this need and also people want freedom and they want to be famous as well.

Self-Acquisition: this need refer to luxury. It can be a part of self-satisfaction for example some people wants to be an ideal parents some wants to be good painter or sports man.

Herzberg Two factors Theory

two-factor-theory-satisfaction-and-motivation

https://maliwanblog.wordpress.com/

According to Herzberg intrinsic and extrinsic motivation cannot motivate people. He believed that there are two factors which motivate employees.

  1. Motivators
  2. Hygiene factors

Motivator factors are necessary for employees manger needs to give them complex tasks so after fulfilling those task they will feel that they achieve something also give them authority to take part in decision making it make them think that they are a part of organisation. It gives them positive satisfaction and makes their work more interesting for them.

Hygiene Factors:

This factor includes job security, salary, bonuses, benefits, paid insurance and vacations. It leads to higher level of motivation. Herzberg believed that if you take these factors away people will get dissatisfied and they want them get back.

Sports Direct is using different motivational theories including Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs although company is using Transactional leadership style but they think that their staffs is very important for them. Company arrange some events for their staff to encourage and motivate them. Sports direct is also giving non-financial benefits to its employees such as training, arranging family tour for senior employees. Whereas Gold gym in some point is using Herzberg duel factors theory company leadership style is Laissez-fair so company don’t actually care what employees are doing until or unless they are doing their job. Company do not actually motivate employees as much as they should. Gold gym needs to adopt different motivational theories in order to motivate its employees and make their work interesting for them by giving them some tasks which would help them to show their involvement in task and also company needs to allow employees to take part in decision making. In this way employee will show their more involvement in tasks.

V-room Expectancy Theory

Untitled

https://wikispaces.psu.edu/display/psych484/4.+expectancy+theory

 

This theory proposes that although persons might be having changed sets of goals, but they can be inspired if they trust that:

  • There is a positive association between performance and efforts.
  • Favorable act would result in a required reward.
  • The reward will gratify an important need,
  • Desire to satisfy the need is strong enough to make the effort valuable

This theory also have 3 different believes.

 

Valence:

      It leads to expressive orientations of employee hold in order to get reward. The desperation of employee for extrinsic reward for example money, promotion, benefits. And also Intrinsic reward such as inner satisfaction.

Expectancy:

           It is related with efforts and rewards. And usually it is based on personal confidence and past experience.

Instrumentality:

           It is based on perception of employees that whether they will get the promised reward or not. Manager needs to make sure that give promised reward to employee and let them know as well.

Theory which is sports direct is using that is good for them because they are motivating their employees through non-financial factors as well on the other hand Gold gym needs to follow some motivational theory. For Gold gym V-room theory is good as well because this theory also would help them in their leadership style by setting some tasks for their employees Gold gym give them job satisfaction as well which will force them to stay with that company for long time.

Leadership styles and management theories

Hi everyone!

Welcome to my blog. In this blog you will find various type of leadership styles and their impact on two different organisations and also some management styles and theories which helps businesses to make effective judgements.

Leadership:

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http://www.wheel.ie/leadership

Leader is an individual who leads you and takes you there you will not go by yourself by motivating you and by inspiring you. Leader can also define as persuading others to follow a certain track.

According to Adeoye Mayowa (2009) Leadership is the capability to appraise or predict a long term strategy or procedure and encourage the supporters to the success of the said strategy.

There are different types of leadership styles I have briefly explained some of them below.

Transactional leadership:

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http://reddeltaproject.com/2013/03/23/motivation-3-0-beyond-punishment-and-reward/

This leadership style also known as managerial leadership its emphases on role of supervision and also it is based on reward and punishment. For motivating the followers’ leader sets specific tasks and promising them for rewards if they perform well and when employees fail managers motivate them.

Transformational leadership:

3

http://poncier.org/blog/?p=790

 

Transformational leadership is a style of leadership where the leader is recognising the desired change, generating an image to tell the change through motivation, and implement the change between team members.

According to James McGregor

Leaders and their supporters increase one another to advanced levels of morality and motivation.

Laissez-faire leadership:

4

http://www.getprotected.com.au/?p=3533

This French phrase means “leave it be”. This style of leadership allows employees to have full liberty to make choices regarding the accomplishment of their task. It lets supporters a great degree of self-sufficiency and autonomy, whereas at the similar spell offering direction and support when they ask otherwise they don’t get involved. This style of leadership can lead to high job gratification but it can destroy the company if employees don’t manage their time efficiently.

Sports direct is a well-known retailor and have many branches so it is based upon Transactional leadership style. “Transactional leaders fundamentally exert their impact over their staff by reinforcing their behaviours whichever positively or negatively depending on whether or not their staffs achieves according to the leader’s prospects and needs” (Passmore, 2010) (p. 213). This style gives chance to employees explore their ideas but at the decision taken by leader.

This style is not much effective for sports direct because as a retailer shop they need to motivate their employees and if any change occur they need to tell employees through motivation so transformational leadership style might suit the sports direct.

Gold gym is also a famous business. It has branches all over the world. This gym is based on Laissez-fair leadership style because there all staff just doing whatever they want because of this some staff member not giving their best performance because lack of check and balance. They already has defined their job which is somehow does not suit that business employer need to set a system that if they do their work efficiently they will get a price just to motivate them so Gold gym needs to move to Transactional style in order to work more effectively.

Underpinning Management theory:

Henri Fayol described management as “To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control”.

Douglas McGregor was one the writer who came up with management theories known as Theory x and Theory Y managers. If you think that your group members hate their work then you will lean towards an authoritarian management style on the other side if you believe that workers loves to do their job you will be likely to to adopt a more participative management style. These theories have been very successful among businesses.

 

 

Theory X:

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http://nitieim19pomb120.blogspot.co.uk/2012/07/douglas-murray-mcgregors-theory-y.html

According to McGregor theory x workers considered lazy, naturally unmotivated and not happy with their job and this inspires an authoritarian management style. Theory X businesses required top heavy and strict managers and supervisors because they have to keep an eye on their staff.

Basic Assumption of theory X employees:

Not like their job, no motivation, lazy, avoid responsibility, need to supervise at every step and no ambition.

Theory Y:

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Eca-business.wikispace.com

It is a participative style of management and also de-centralised. It assumes that workers are self-motivated, innovative and they like their job and also they are happy to have responsibility. Theory Y employees do not require external control to do their work. They assume that staff has required skills and knowledge about their work.

Assumption of theory Y employees:

Motivated, like their job, Ambitious, can take responsibility and more creative.

 

Types of management styles:

There are many management styles has been introduced some of them discussed below.

Democratic management style:

7

http://www.managerialskills.org/management-styles/

 

In this style of management managers allows their staff and subordinate to take part in decision making although final decision based on majority and communication has wide in this style so any one can have their say.

Persuasive management style:

Manager has the full control on decision making although mangers spend more time to convince their staff about that decision which have been made. A persuasive manager is more attentive of their staff but in this style there is no interference from employees. This management style is helpful when complex task need to be carried out.

Mintzberg Managerial Roles

According to Mintzberg manager has different roles in organisation.

  • Interpersonal roles:

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http://www.health-psych.org/InterpRacism.cfm

This role involves giving information and thoughts.

 

  • Figurehead:

Do certain lawful and public responsibilities as a representative leader. For example greetings people, sign legal documents.

  • Leader:

Motivate’ guide and train staff.

  • Liaison:

                Build and maintain contacts inside and outside of the organisation.

 

  • Informational Roles:

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http://study.com/academy/lesson/disseminator-role-definition-quiz.html

  • Monitor:

               Find and get work related information.

  • Disseminator:

Communicate information with others inside the company.

Spokesperson:

Communicate information outside the company on behalf of organisation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Decisional roles:

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http://www.softsolutions.fr/eng/why-ibs-category-management

  • Disturbance Handler:

Deals with issues and take require action to make them correct.

  • Entrepreneur:

                      Find new ideas and bring changes.

  • Resource allocator:

Allocate resources appropriate place in organisation.

  • Negotiator:

                       Negotiate issues on behalf of company.

Sports direct is based on theory X because their leader stop and control them all the time therefore staff really not like their job company need to switch theory Y because if staff would be motivate then they can work more effectively. Whereas Gold GYM based on theory Y which is somehow good but company need to set some targets in order to be more efficient.

 

Bibliography

mindtools. (1996-2015). Retrieved 4 15, 2015, from mindtools.com: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/transformational-leadership.htm

money-zinetm. (2004). Retrieved 4 20, 2015, from money-zine.com: http://www.money-zine.com/career-development/leadership-skill/transactional-leadership/

managementdegrees. (2012, may). Retrieved 4 25, 2015, from managementdegrees.net: http://www.managementdegrees.net/blog/types-of-managers-management-styles/

boundless.com. (2014, november 4). Retrieved 4 25, 2015, from boundless.com: https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-management-textbook/introduction-to-management-1/additional-roles-and-skills-of-managers-20/mintzberg-s-management-roles-127-605/

Barringtones. (2014, september 10). getprotected. Retrieved 4 26, 2015, from getprotected.com: http://www.getprotected.com.au/?p=3533

McGregor’s, D. M. (2012, july 30). nitieim19pomb120. Retrieved 4 26, 2015, from nitieim19pomb120.blogspot.co.uk/: http://nitieim19pomb120.blogspot.co.uk/2012/07/douglas-murray-mcgregors-theory-y.html

Passmore, J. (2010). leadership coaching. london: kogan page limited.

WebFinance, I. (2015). businessdictionary. Retrieved 4 26, 2015, from businessdictionary.com: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/theory-X-and-theory-Y.html

 

Blog 1 – Organíation and Behaviour

First Blog

Hello everyone..!

Welcome to my blog. In this blog you will be able to find different types of organisational structures and cultures. Furthermore I will talk about two organisations structure and also about their culture.

Organisational structure defines how the rules, power responsibilities are assigned, organised, and synchronized, and how information flows among the different levels of management.

Types of structures:

  • Tall Structure:

This is a very complex structure because it has many levels of hierarchy and span of control is also very limited in these types of organisations.

  • Flat Structure:

This type of structure has very few layers and has large span of control so staff can convey their messages easily.

  • Matrix Structure:

In this structure individuals can work in team or in project. This team can be momentary or everlasting just hang on task they are requested to complete. It is used for large project.

Organisational Culture:

It can be define as Behaviour of people within the organisation.

Types of Culture:

Charles handy has classified culture into different types.

  • Power Culture:

In this type of culture few people has lots of authority because of that decision made quickly. This culture is suit on small business.

  • Role Culture:

In this culture power comes from person position.

  • Task Culture:

In this culture groups just formed to solve problems/tasks furthermore motivation level is very high in this culture.

  • Personal culture:

Individuals have freedom to express themselves in this culture because there’s no teamwork in it.

 

Sports Direct (Romford)

1

  • History:

Sports Direct International PLC is a British retailing group. Established in 1982 by Mike Ashley, in 1996 they rebranded’ sports soccer and picked up Donnay. After year by year they acquired almost all famous brands and now The Company is the UK’s leading sporting retailer, and runs over 500 stores worldwide.

  • Structure:2

Sports direct Romford branch has a tall structure. In these types of structures chain of command move’s from top to bottom and decision takes long time because staff cannot communicate straight to the manager, for instance if staff have any problem they have to speak with supervisor than supervisor has to convey that message to floor manager and floor manager can communicate with the manager. This structure has narrow span of control and there are more chances of promotions.

  • Culture:

3

Sports direct has implemented personal culture because everyone can express themselves for instance if a person is working on floor and if cashier is busy then he can go for to help him.

2nd Organisation:

Gold Gym (Dagenham)

4 5

 

History:

The first Gold Gym opened in 1965 in California. Today, Gold’s Gym entitlements to be the leading chain of mixed gender gyms in the world, with added 400 places. It is providing more than 700 facilities today.

 

Structure:

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Gold’s Gym Dagenham branch has a very simple structure which is known as flat structure. It has few levels of hierarchy, short ranks of communication and also wide span of control which means any member of staff can easily communicate with manager so in flat structure decisions can be made quickly but the negative impact of this structure is there’s no chances of promotion so due to this staff can be demotivate. This sort of Culture usually use by small businesses.

Culture:

 7

Gold’s Gym has adopted the role culture. In this culture everyone is just responsible for their own role for example personal trainer just has to train the gym members he can’t do cleaning and cleaners cannot provide training.

Comparison:

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There’s huge difference between these two organisation structures one has flat whereas other has tall. The key difference is flat structure has more layers whereas flat structure has less. Flat structure is more flexible then the tall one. The process of information transmission of Gold Gym is better than Sport Direct, because they have cut down the middle positions, so the interaction between senior and junior staff is also better and more effective.

Basically, the role culture and personal culture are not subject to the strict management, and also not depend too much on top manager. Decisions are made quickly and easily. The individual decisions are also supported. If an individual leaves the organization, this will not affect too much and the organisation is still able to operate as usual. However, in Sport Direct with Personal culture, individuals are not pressed within framework and forced to keep the fixed role as the Role culture (in Gold Gym). They can change their position as long as it is suitable if their abilities. This enhances the strengths and creativation for organisation, so the flexibility in human resources is better.

Impact on the organisation performance

 

The comparison between the two types of structure and cultures partly reflects the impact they have on the performance of business. Sport Direct with narrow span of layers will all allow the expansion become easier, facilitate for promotion. The supervisor does not feel burden having to manage too many of the subunits. In addition, the property of the company is constantly innovating products. So that, to the application of cultural person will create more opportunities for the company’s employees to have a chance to promote their creativity, while also bring certain benefit for the organization.

 

When talking about Gold Gym, on the scale of the gym, their interactions with customers is very regular. Therefore, “Flat Structure” will help senior managers access to the feedback and needs of the client easier to be able to make best plans to satisfy them. Each of Gold Gym employees is assigned tasks so manager will evaluate the effectiveness of each activity based on functional groups. This helps the organisation operate more effective.

 

 

Bibliography

 

http://www.goldsgym.com/paramusnj/

 

http://smallbusiness.chron.com/tall-organizational-structure-3835.html

 

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/jobs/11190429/Sports-Direct-forced-to-spell-out-zero-hours-workers-rights.html

 

http://www.open.edu/openlearn/money-management/management/leadership-and-management/management-perspective-and-practice/content-section-5.5.2

 

https://goldsgymindia.com/aboutus.asp?GID=1